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Science Test 2

Page history last edited by Anna Gay 11 years, 9 months ago

Day Nine: Science Test

 

Recently, college teams from all over the country sent tennis players to participate in a series of experiments conducted by the Physical Education Department of a major university. A variety of coaching methods was used to improve the players’ serves, as described below.

 

Experiment 1

Two groups of 50 tennis players worked on the speed of their basic serves for two weeks. One group consisted solely of right-handed players; the other consisted solely of left-handed players. Half of each group watched videos of a right-handed tennis coach, while the other half watched videos of a left-handed coach. Each player was told to pattern his or her serve on that of the coach in the video. The players received no verbal or physical guidance. The average speed of each player’s serve was measured at the beginning and end of the two-week period, and changes were recorded in Table 1.

Table 1

Players’ handedness

Coach’s handedness

Average

change in

speed (mph)

Right

Right

Left

Left

Right

Left

Right

Left

+5

+2

-1

+8

Experiment 2

For two weeks, a second group of 100 right-handed tennis players watched the same videos of the right-handed tennis coach. The coach also physically guided 50 of those players through the motions of the serve. Again, no verbal instruction was given during the experiment. The average speed and accuracy of each player’s serves were recorded at the beginning and end of this two-week period. The results are recorded in Table 2.

Table 2

Guided

Average

Change in

Speed (mph)

Average

Change in

Accuracy

No

Yes

+5

+9

+15%

+25%

 

Experiment 3

For two weeks, a third group of 100 right-handed tennis players worked on their basic serves. 50 players received no verbal instruction; they watched the same video of the right-handed tennis coach, who also physically guided them through the motions of the serve. The other 50 players did not observe the video but received verbal instruction from the coach, who then physically guided them through the motions of the serve. The results are shown in Table 3.

Table 3

Guidance

Plus

Average

Change in

Speed (mph)

Video

+7

Verbal

Coaching

+10

 

  1. Which of the following results would be expected if Experiment 3 were repeated using left-handed tennis players and a left-handed coach?

  1. The average service accuracy of all the players would increase by at least 30%.

  2. The average service speed of all the players would decrease slightly.

  3. Verbal coaching would improve average service speed less than would watching the video.

  4. The average service speed of the players who watched the video would increase by at least 8 mph.

 

  1. Which of the following conclusions could NOT be supported by the results of Experiment 1?

    1. Imitating someone whose handedness is the opposite of one’s own will cause one’s skills to deteriorate.

    2. Left-handed people are better than right-handed people at imitating the movement of someone with similar handedness.

    3. People learn more easily by observing someone with similar handedness than by observing someone with handedness opposite their own.

    4. Right-handed people are better than left-handed people at imitating the movement of someone whose handedness is opposite their own.

 

  1. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the results of Experiment 2?

    1. Instructional videos are more helpful for right-handed tennis players than is verbal instruction.

    2. Instructional videos are more helpful for left-handed tennis players than for right-handed tennis players.

    3. Physical guidance by a coach improves both speed and accuracy of service for right-handed tennis players.

    4. Physical guidance by a coach improves service accuracy for right-handed tennis players more than for left-handed players.

 

  1. Suppose 50 left-handed tennis players watch a video of a left-handed coach and are also physically guided by that coach. The results of the experiments suggest that the players’ average change in service speed will most closely approximate.

    1. -1 mph.

    2. +5 mph.

    3. +8 mph.

    4. +12 mph.

 

  1. Which of the following hypotheses is best supported by the results of Experiment 1 alone?

    1. Tennis players improve less by observing coaches whose handedness is the opposite of their own than by observing those with similar handedness.

    2. Right-handed tennis players are coached by left-handed coaches more frequently than left-handed players are coached by right-handed coaches.

    3. Right-handed coaches are better models for all tennis players than are left-handed coaches.

    4. People learn much better from physical contact plus a visual stimulus than from the visual stimulus alone.

 

  1. What change in procedure would allow a researcher to best determine the effects of verbal instruction on the average service speed of tennis players?

    1. Repeating Experiment 3 with left-handed players

    2. Repeating Experiment 2 with an instructional audio tape instead of a video

    3. Measuring the service speed of 100 tennis players before and after they listened to an instructional audio tape

    4. Verbally coaching 50 left-handed and 50 right-handed tennis players and then measuring their service speed

 

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